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Industrial Chemistry By Bk Sharma Pdf 33

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Industrial Chemistry By Bk Sharma Pdf 33

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Two major conventional methods of recycling postconsumer PET exist: mechanical recycling and chemical recycling. Although it is economically viable relative to chemical recycling, mechanical recycling often produces new materials with lower quality which are not suitable for reuse in most beverage and food packaging owing to polymer degradation during processing and the high decontamination requirements. As a consequence, mechanically-recycled PET usually ends up in products such as fibers and engineering resins [27]. Chemical recycling of PET can guarantee the quality of the repolymerized products. Industrial processes for chemical recycling usually involve cleavage of the functional ester groups by reagents such as glycols (glycolysis), methanol (methanolysis), and water (hydrolysis), which are generally conducted at high temperature in the presence of catalysts such as manganese acetate [28], cobalt acetate [29], acetic acid, lithium hydroxide, sodium/potassium sulfate [30], and titanium (IV) n-butoxide [31]. Due to the unfavorable economics relative to mechanical recycling and low cost of starting monomer, chemical recycling of PET is not widely practiced. Thus, developing an environmentally safe, economically feasible, and industrially applicable chemical recycling process of PET is the goal for wide-scale applications.

Prof. Ir. Dr Mohd Omar is a professional Chemical Engineer active in engineering research on supercritical fluid technology and industrial wastewater treatment plant design and built environmental auditing, and hazardous waste handling. He is widely recognized in the area of industrial wastewater treatment and supercritical fluids technology applications. Dr Omar has published over 200 research articles in high-impact indexed journals, patents, book chapters, and presentations at international conferences. He is a consultant to many local and international companies in wastewater treatment.

56. "Modeling Free Energies of Solvation and Transfer," D. J. Giesen, C. C. Chambers, G. D. Hawkins, C. J. Cramer, and D. G. Truhlar, in Computational Thermochemistry, edited by K. Irikura and D. J. Frurip (American Chemical Society ,Symposium Series 677, Washington, DC), pp. 285-300 (1998). Available as PDF file

70. "Multilevel Methods for Thermochemistry and Thermochemical Kinetics," B. J. Lynch and D. G. Truhlar, in Recent Advances in Electron Correlation methodology, edited by A. K. Wilson (Oxford University Press, American Chemical Society Symposium Series Volume 958, Washington, DC, 2007), pp. 153-167. Available as PDF file and

83. "The Minnesota Density Functionals and Their Applications to Problems in Mineralogy and Geochemistry," Y. Zhao and G. G. Truhlar, in Theoretical and Computational Methods in Mineral Physics: Geophysical Applications, edited by R. Wentzcovitch and L. Stixrude (Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Volume 71, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA, 2010), pages 19-37. DOI:10.2138/rmg.2010.71.2 (Available as PDF file )

86. "Theoretical Calculation of Reduction Potentials," J. Ho, M. L. Coote, C. J. Cramer, and D. G. Truhlar, in Organic Electrochemistry, 5th edition, edited by O. Hammerich and B. Speiser (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2016), pp. 229-259. ISBN-13: 978-1-4200-8402-3. (Available as PDF file)

Currently, TiO2 NPs are produced abundantly and used widely because of their high stability, anticorrosive and photocatalytic properties [4]. Some have attributed this increased catalytic activity to TiO2 NPs to their high surface area, while others attribute it to TiO2 NPs being predominantly anatase rather than rutile [18, 19]. TiO2 NPs can be used in catalytic reactions, such as semiconductor photocatalysis, in the treatment of water contaminated with hazardous industrial by-products [36], and in nanocrystalline solar cells as a photoactive material [37]. Industrial utilization of the photocatalytic effect of TiO2 NPs has also found its way into other applications, especially for self-cleaning and anti-fogging purposes such as self-cleaning tiles, self-cleaning windows, self-cleaning textiles, and anti-fogging car mirrors [38]. In the field of nanomedicine, TiO2 NPs are under investigation as useful tools in advanced imaging and nanotherapeutics [37]. For example, TiO2 NPs are being evaluated as potential photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) [39]. In addition, unique physical properties make TiO2 NPs ideal for use in various skin care products. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma accuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases [40]. TiO2 NPs also show antibacterial properties under UV light irradiation [37, 41].

In summary, the acute toxicity of TiO2 NPs have been frequently studied in rat and mouse models following multiple exposure routes of administration. The number of studies targeting the respiratory system outweighs the other exposure routes. Studies exposing the pulmonary system to TiO2 NPs produced both local and systemic symptoms and aggravate pre-existing symptoms. TiO2 NPs administered through the lung are more inflammatory than FPs of similar chemistry at equal mass concentrations. However, on an equal particle surface area basis, pulmonary inflammation to TiO2 NPs was similar to that of TiO2 FPs. The results from the other exposure routes cannot be ignored. For example, research evidence demonstrates that TiO2 NPs can be absorbed through the lung or GIT into the systemic circulation and then distributed in different organs such as the liver, kidneys, spleen, or even the brain. Distribution and accumulation of TiO2 NPs in the organs could induce organ injuries and inflammatory responses. However, most of the doses employed are too high to be realistic in occupational settings. In vitro studies also show effects of TiO2 NPs on the blood circulation system.

Plant biomass is a highly abundant renewable resource that can be converted into several types of high-value-added products, including chemicals, biofuels and advanced materials. In the last few decades, an increasing number of biomass species and processing techniques have been developed to enhance the application of plant biomass followed by the industrial application of some of the products, during which varied technologies have been successfully developed. In this review, we summarize the different sources of plant biomass, the evolving technologies for treating it, and the various products derived from plant biomass. Moreover, the challenges inherent in the valorization of plant biomass used in high-value-added products are also discussed. Overall, with the increased use of plant biomass, the development of treatment technologies, and the solution of the challenges raised during plant biomass valorization, the value-added products derived from plant biomass will become greater in number and more valuable.

First generation feedstocks generally refer to plants that are rich in sugars (sugarcane, sweet sorghum, sugar beet, etc.), starches (corn, wheat, barley, potato, etc.) and oils (olive, palm, sunflower, coconut, etc.) and are used in the production of first-generation bioethanol and biodiesel. As the earliest researched biofuels, their industrial production techniques are already mature, and these biofuels have been used commercially in marine vessels or vehicles [10]. For example, the bioethanol used in the U.S. accounted for 46% of total biomass fuels in 2018 [11], and the global bioethanol production market reached 110 billion litres in the same year. However, first-generation feedstocks are primarily edible, so they will always compete with food crops or feed production. Furthermore, their production not only relies on fertilizers but also promotes deforestation to obtain more agricultural land [12], which makes first-generation biofuels non-sustainable. This is an incompatible and common theme of bioenergy; therefore, the second generation of sustainable feedstocks has been developed.

To reduce the adverse effects of excessive fossil fuel consumption, biomass fuel is regarded as a green and renewable alternative to fossil fuels, which has attracted widespread attention. Among biomass fuels, bioethanol is the most studied and the primary industrial application. More than 96% of the total global bioethanol production still comes from the first-generation bioethanol (1G) produced from grains and starch-based feedstocks such as sugarcane, sugar beet and corn; moreover, these feedstocks are not considered sustainable in the long term due to their direct or indirect competition with food and feed production [180]. By contrast, the second-generation bioethanol (2G) produced from lignocellulosic biomass, such as woody crops, crop residues or energy grasses, can not only address the problem of food competition but they also demonstrate a higher potential to reduce the greenhouse effect [181,182,183]. If 2G fuel reaches biorefinery level applications, many problems, including technical and economic problems in the biochemical transformation route and local biological resource collection and processing and life cycle assessment, must be solved and overcome in the future. Recently, some attention has been given to the production of biobutanol, because bioethanol has some obvious shortcomings as a substitute for gasoline. Ethanol has great differences in hygroscopicity and specific combustion energy density, resulting in a mixture ratio of ethanol and gasoline creating a challenge for motor operations. By contrast, butanol shows no hygroscopicity and can be easily added to gasoline in any proportion [184]. However, the relevant research at this stage is largely focused on the metabolism and genetic engineering of Clostridia strains used for butanol fermentation and the optimization and innovation of fermentation conditions [185,186,187,188,189].


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